Here is one demonstrable fact about the difference between Catholic and public schools: Students who study at Catholic schools do better in reading and math.
We know this because students who attended Catholic elementary schools in 2019 tested better in mathematics and reading than students who attended public schools.
The latest issue of the Digest of Education Statistics, published by the U.S. Department of Education, includes the average reading and math scores that fourth and eighth grade students achieved in the National Assessment of Educational Progress, or NAEP, tests that were administered in 2019.
Fourth graders in public schools, it says, scored an average of 219 (out of a possible 500) in the NAEP reading test. Catholic school fourth graders scored 235.
The Catholic-school fourth graders won.